War on Drugs
US surgeon general: doctors have central role in solving opioid epidemic
BMJ 2017; 356 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.j715 (Published 15 February 2017)
Cite this as: BMJ 2017;356:j715
Re: US surgeon general: doctors have central role in solving opioid epidemic
Pharma Opiods Abuse In India
Pharmaceutical opioids are semi-synthetic medications that derive from the active opiate alkaloids found in the opium poppy. In various formulations, they are advised to relieve pain. They reduce the intensity of pain signals and are capable of producing positive, reinforcing effects in the user as heroin.
At a neurological level, pharmaceutical opioids work to supress the pain signals from the body, but the ensuing psychological effects—like euphoria and extreme relaxation—serve as the primary building blocks for the development of abuse and addiction. The summation of these effects prove intensely rewarding to those abusing them—eliciting persistent alterations in brain chemistry that may further compel an individual to use the drug, time and again.
Among pharma opioids are buprenorphine, pentazocine dextropropyxyphyne and cough syrups like Corex and Benadryl are used because of over the counter sales in developing and in underdeveloped countries.
Most of the times these agents are used as cocktails in various routes of admistrations with or without alcohol in India.
If a person begins using opioids for medical reasons, it is more likely that a dependency will develop first, potentially escalating into abuse behaviors. On the illicit market, abuse is generally the starting point for dependency. No matter how you cut it, opioid misuse is a dangerous habit with far-reaching consequences.
Competing interests: No competing interests
17 February 2017
M A Aleem
A M Hakkim
Annamalainagar, Trichy 620018, Tamilnadu, India