Friday, April 24, 2015

World Malaria Day 2015: Invest in the future. Defeat malaria 25 April 2015

World Malaria Day 2015: Invest in the future. Defeat malaria

25 April 2015

On World Malaria Day 2015, the World Health Organization is calling for high-level commitment to the vision of a world free of malaria. The theme, set by the Roll Back Malaria Partnership, is Invest in the future: Defeat malaria. This reflects the ambitious goals and targets set out in a draft post-2015 strategy to be presented to the World Health Assembly in May. The new strategy aims to reduce malaria cases and deaths by 90% by 2030 from current levels. Four countries have been certified free of malaria in the last decade and the post-2015 strategy sets the goal of eliminating the disease from a further 35 countries by 2030.

While huge gains in the fight against malaria have been made in recent years, the disease still has a devastating impact on people’s health and livelihoods around the world, particularly in Africa, where it kills almost half a million children under 5 each year.

Effective tools to prevent and treat malaria already exist, but more funds are urgently required to make them available to the people who need them and to combat emerging drug and insecticide resistance.

World Malaria Day is a chance to highlight the advances that have already been made in malaria prevention and control, and to commit to continued investment and action to accelerate progress against this deadly disease.

Key facts

Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected mosquitoes.

In 2013, malaria caused an estimated 584 000 deaths (with an uncertainty range of 367 000 to 755 000), mostly among African children.

Malaria is preventable and curable.

Increased malaria prevention and control measures are dramatically reducing the malaria burden in many places.

Non-immune travellers from malaria-free areas are very vulnerable to the disease when they get infected.

According to the latest estimates, released in December 2014, there were about 198 million cases of malaria in 2013 (with an uncertainty range of 124 million to 283 million) and an estimated 584 000 deaths (with an uncertainty range of 367 000 to 755 000). Malaria mortality rates have fallen by 47% globally since 2000, and by 54% in the WHO African Region.

Most deaths occur among children living in Africa where a child dies every minute from malaria. Malaria mortality rates among children in Africa have been reduced by an estimated 58% since 2000.

Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites. The parasites are spread to people through the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes, called "malaria vectors", which bite mainly between dusk and dawn.

There are four parasite species that cause malaria in humans:

Plasmodium falciparum

Plasmodium vivax

Plasmodium malariae

Plasmodium ovale.

Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are the most common. Plasmodium falciparum is the most deadly.

In recent years, some human cases of malaria have also occurred with Plasmodium knowlesi – a species that causes malaria among monkeys and occurs in certain forested areas of South-East Asia.


Malaria is transmitted exclusively through the bites of Anopheles mosquitoes. The intensity of transmission depends on factors related to the parasite, the vector, the human host, and the environment.

About 20 different Anopheles species are locally important around the world. All of the important vector species bite at night. Anopheles mosquitoes breed in water and each species has its own breeding preference; for example some prefer shallow collections of fresh water, such as puddles, rice fields, and hoof prints. Transmission is more intense in places where the mosquito lifespan is longer (so that the parasite has time to complete its development inside the mosquito) and where it prefers to bite humans rather than other animals. For example, the long lifespan and strong human-biting habit of the African vector species is the main reason why about 90% of the world's malaria deaths are in Africa.

Transmission also depends on climatic conditions that may affect the number and survival of mosquitoes, such as rainfall patterns, temperature and humidity. In many places, transmission is seasonal, with the peak during and just after the rainy season. Malaria epidemics can occur when climate and other conditions suddenly favour transmission in areas where people have little or no immunity to malaria. They can also occur when people with low immunity move into areas with intense malaria transmission, for instance to find work, or as refugees.

Human immunity is another important factor, especially among adults in areas of moderate or intense transmission conditions. Partial immunity is developed over years of exposure, and while it never provides complete protection, it does reduce the risk that malaria infection will cause severe disease. For this reason, most malaria deaths in Africa occur in young children, whereas in areas with less transmission and low immunity, all age groups are at risk.


Malaria is an acute febrile illness. In a non-immune individual, symptoms appear seven days or more (usually 10–15 days) after the infective mosquito bite. The first symptoms – fever, headache, chills and vomiting – may be mild and difficult to recognize as malaria. If not treated within 24 hours, P. falciparum malaria can progress to severe illness often leading to death. Children with severe malaria frequently develop one or more of the following symptoms: severe anaemia, respiratory distress in relation to metabolic acidosis, or cerebral malaria. In adults, multi-organ involvement is also frequent. In malaria endemic areas, persons may develop partial immunity, allowing asymptomatic infections to occur.

For both P. vivax and P. ovale, clinical relapses may occur weeks to months after the first infection, even if the patient has left the malarious area. These new episodes arise from dormant liver forms known as hypnozoites (absent in P. falciparum and P. malariae); special treatment – targeted at these liver stages – is required for a complete cure.

Who is at risk?

Approximately half of the world's population is at risk of malaria. Most malaria cases and deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. However, Asia, Latin America, and to a lesser extent the Middle East and parts of Europe are also affected. In 2014, 97 countries and territories had ongoing malaria transmission.

Specific population risk groups include:

young children in stable transmission areas who have not yet developed protective immunity against the most severe forms of the disease;

non-immune pregnant women as malaria causes high rates of miscarriage and can lead to maternal death;

semi-immune pregnant women in areas of high transmission. Malaria can result in miscarriage and low birth weight, especially during first and second pregnancies;

semi-immune HIV-infected pregnant women in stable transmission areas, during all pregnancies. Women with malaria infection of the placenta also have a higher risk of passing HIV infection to their newborns;

people with HIV/AIDS;

international travellers from non-endemic areas because they lack immunity;

immigrants from endemic areas and their children living in non-endemic areas and returning to their home countries to visit friends and relatives are similarly at risk because of waning or absent immunity.

Diagnosis and treatment

Early diagnosis and treatment of malaria reduces disease and prevents deaths. It also contributes to reducing malaria transmission.

The best available treatment, particularly for P. falciparum malaria, is artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT).

WHO recommends that all cases of suspected malaria be confirmed using parasite-based diagnostic testing (either microscopy or rapid diagnostic test) before administering treatment. Results of parasitological confirmation can be available in 15 minutes or less. Treatment solely on the basis of symptoms should only be considered when a parasitological diagnosis is not possible. More detailed recommendations are available in the "Guidelines for the treatment of malaria" (second edition). An updated edition will be published in 2015.

Antimalarial drug resistance

Resistance to antimalarial medicines is a recurring problem. Resistance of P. falciparum to previous generations of medicines, such as chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), became widespread in the 1970s and 1980s, undermining malaria control efforts and reversing gains in child survival.

In recent years, parasite resistance to artemisinins has been detected in 5 countries of the Greater Mekong subregion: Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Viet Nam. While there are likely many factors that contribute to the emergence and spread of resistance, the use of oral artemisinins alone, as monotherapy, is thought to be an important driver. When treated with an oral artemisinin-based monotherapy, patients may discontinue treatment prematurely following the rapid disappearance of malaria symptoms. This results in incomplete treatment, and such patients still have persistent parasites in their blood. Without a second drug given as part of a combination (as is provided with an ACT), these resistant parasites survive and can be passed on to a mosquito and then another person.

If resistance to artemisinins develops and spreads to other large geographical areas, the public health consequences could be dire.

WHO recommends the routine monitoring of antimalarial drug resistance, and supports countries to strengthen their efforts in this important area of work.

More comprehensive recommendations are available in the "WHO Global Plan for Artemisinin Resistance Containment (GPARC)", which was released in 2011. For countries in the Greater Mekong subregion, WHO has issued a regional framework for action titled "Emergency response to artemisinin resistance in the Greater Mekong subregion" in 2013.


Vector control is the main way to reduce malaria transmission at the community level. It is the only intervention that can reduce malaria transmission from very high levels to close to zero.

For individuals, personal protection against mosquito bites represents the first line of defence for malaria prevention.

Two forms of vector control are effective in a wide range of circumstances.

Insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs)

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the preferred form of ITNs for public health distribution programmes. WHO recommends coverage for all at-risk persons; and in most settings. The most cost effective way to achieve this is through provision of free LLINs, so that everyone sleeps under a LLIN every night.

Indoor spraying with residual insecticides

Indoor residual spraying (IRS) with insecticides is a powerful way to rapidly reduce malaria transmission. Its full potential is realized when at least 80% of houses in targeted areas are sprayed. Indoor spraying is effective for 3–6 months, depending on the insecticide used and the type of surface on which it is sprayed. DDT can be effective for 9–12 months in some cases. Longer-lasting forms of existing IRS insecticides, as well as new classes of insecticides for use in IRS programmes, are under development.

Antimalarial medicines can also be used to prevent malaria. For travellers, malaria can be prevented through chemoprophylaxis, which suppresses the blood stage of malaria infections, thereby preventing malaria disease. In addition, WHO recommends intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for pregnant women living in high transmission areas, at each scheduled antenatal visit after the first trimester. Similarly, for infants living in high-transmission areas of Africa, 3 doses of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is recommended delivered alongside routine vaccinations. In 2012, WHO recommended Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention as an additional malaria prevention strategy for areas of the Sahel sub-Region of Africa. The strategy involves the administration of monthly courses of amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine to all children under 5 years of age during the high transmission season.

Insecticide resistance

Much of the success to date in controlling malaria is due to vector control. Vector control is highly dependent on the use of pyrethroids, which are the only class of insecticides currently recommended for ITNs or LLINs. In recent years, mosquito resistance to pyrethroids has emerged in many countries. In some areas, resistance to all 4 classes of insecticides used for public health has been detected. Fortunately, this resistance has only rarely been associated with decreased efficacy, and LLINs and IRS remain highly effective tools in almost all settings.

However, countries in sub-Saharan Africa and India are of significant concern. These countries are characterized by high levels of malaria transmission and widespread reports of insecticide resistance. The development of new, alternative insecticides is a high priority and several promising products are in the pipeline. Development of new insecticides for use on bed nets is a particular priority.

Detection of insecticide resistance should be an essential component of all national malaria control efforts to ensure that the most effective vector control methods are being used. The choice of insecticide for IRS should always be informed by recent, local data on the susceptibility target vectors.

In order to ensure a timely and coordinated global response to the threat of insecticide resistance, WHO has worked with a wide range of stakeholders to develop the "Global Plan for Insecticide Resistance Management in malaria vectors" (GPIRM), which was released in May 2012. The GPIRM puts forward a five-pillar strategy calling on the global malaria community to:

plan and implement insecticide resistance management strategies in malaria-endemic countries;

ensure proper and timely entomological and resistance monitoring, and effective data management;

develop new and innovative vector control tools;

fill gaps in knowledge on mechanisms of insecticide resistance and the impact of current insecticide resistance management approaches; and

ensure that enabling mechanisms (advocacy as well as human and financial resources) are in place.

Malaria elimination is defined as interrupting local mosquito-borne malaria transmission in a defined geographical area, i.e. zero incidence of locally contracted cases. Malaria eradication is defined as the permanent reduction to zero of the worldwide incidence of malaria infection caused by a specific agent; i.e. applies to a particular malaria parasite species.

On the basis of reported cases for 2013, 55 countries are on track to reduce their malaria case incidence rates by 75%, in line with World Health Assembly targets for 2015. Large-scale use of WHO-recommended strategies, currently available tools, strong national commitments, and coordinated efforts with partners, will enable more countries – particularly those where malaria transmission is low and unstable – to reduce their disease burden and progress towards elimination.

In recent years, 4 countries have been certified by the WHO Director-General as having eliminated malaria: United Arab Emirates (2007), Morocco (2010), Turkmenistan (2010), and Armenia (2011).

Vaccines against malaria

There are currently no licensed vaccines against malaria or any other human parasite. One research vaccine against P. falciparum, known as RTS, S/AS01, is most advanced. This vaccine has been evaluated in a large clinical trial in 7 countries in Africa and has been submitted to the European Medicines Agency under art. 58 for regulatory review. A WHO recommendation for use will depend on the final results from the large clinical trial and a positive regulatory review. The recommendation as to whether or not this vaccine should be added to existing malaria control tools is expected in late 2015.

Friday, April 17, 2015

Yes, it needs attention . Aleem M A . BMJ⁠ 2015;350:h1312


What Your Patient is Thinking

Car parking is a clinical quality issue

BMJ⁠ 2015⁠; 350⁠ doi: (Published 14 April 2015)⁠

Cite this as: BMJ⁠ 2015;350:h1312

Rapid responses

Re: Car parking is a clinical quality issue

Yes, it needs attention

Patients' care includes transportation along with care. Hospitals and consultation suites provide drop and go facilities for patients to cut short the transportation delay for patients. Hospital authorities should adopt specific guidelines and rules for car parking and patient transfer in vehicles .

Competing interests: No competing interests

16 April 2015



ABC Hospital

Annamalainagar Trichy 620018 Tamilnadu India

Monday, April 13, 2015

Health effects of artificially ripened fruits

Health effects of artificially ripened fruits

Summer is that time of the year when the shelves of fruit shops and larder s of most residents are filled with the ‘king of fruits’.


The sale of mangoes shoots through the roof in the summer season. The demand during peak season is estimated to exceed many tonnes for every three days in the all over Tamilnadu.

This is far higher than what the market can supply. As a result, carcinogenic (cancer-causing) agents are being used to ripen the fruits quickly for higher volume of sales.

The chemicals used for artificial ripening of fruits can cause cancer.

In the past four to five years, the practice of artificial ripening has become prevalent Tamilnadu .

How to Identify the Right Fruits to Consume

The external color and the texture are usually taken under consideration when it comes to choose right fruits. The naturally ripened fruits are often uneven in color. It is advisable to choose fruits during the season when it turns ripe naturally, since a ripe fruit during off season may artificially ripen unless it is genetically ripen . For instance. However, ripening also induce the taste of the fruits and also contributes to their weight loss.


Artificially ripened mangoes can be spotted through a careful examination of the fruit. They will lack the aroma and will be less juicy compared to the naturally ripened ones.

Fruits that are artificially ripened will be having uniform colour throughout the skin, which will not be the case in naturally ripened fruits. If a person holds it in his hand, they can feel the difference between artificially and naturally ripened mangoes.

These fruits will also be difficult to cut and the inside will be white in colour rather than yellow.

Chemicals used

Certain chemicals are used to fasten the ripening of fruits which include Calcium carbide
and Ethephone. Some fruits vendor may use burning kerosene stove or incense sticks to hasten the ripening of fruits

Health effects

Calcium carbide was an industrial grade product, it contained arsenic and lead participles.

Ethephone, an insecticide, is another chemical used for this purpose.

Neurological dysfunctions

These toxic impurities affect the neurological system and reduce the oxygen supply to the brain. Consuming artificially ripened mangoes could result in sleeping disorders and headaches, memory loss, seizures, mouth ulcers, skin rashes, renal problems and possibly, even cancer. Children and pregnant women in particular should avoid artificially ripened fruits.

Ethylene is the major ripening agent produced naturally within the fruits to instigate ripening process. However, chemicals agents like ethephon and calcium carbide are frequently used in developing countries to activate fruit ripening process due to cheaper price. Working with such chemical agents without using appropriate protective gears can be hazardous for the workers. On the other hand, the consumers suffer from the indirect consumption of ripening agents and their contaminants. The nutrition values like the protein content, vitamin-C and beta-carotene decrease in artificially ripened Pineapples and Bananas . The critical finding was the presence of Arsenic and Lead within artificially ripened Pineapples and Bananas. The concentration of Arsenic and lead were within the daily permissible intake limit for an adult, however, regular consumption of such fruits can cause serious health hazards to human beings like cancer, skin irritation, diarrhea, liver disease, kidney disease, gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, cardiac disturbances, central nervous system depression and cardiac abnormalities etc. Ideally artificial ripening agents release ethylene or acetylene to instigate fruit ripening and should not contain metal or metalloid. But practically industrial grade calcium carbide and ethephon may contain a high percentage of Arsenic lead and Phosphorus compounds which are toxic for human health and can contaminate artificially ripened fruits. Usage of high grade ripening agents requires low dosing rate and any metal/metalloid contamination must be avoided.

Act and law in India

Tamilnadu Govt. Appointed offices to look for it . In every district collectors are also making surprise to find out this.

The Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 (Rules 2011) totally bans the practice of ripening of fruits in India.

Friday, April 10, 2015

World Parkinson's disease Day 2015 April 11th

World Parkinson's disease Day 2015

11th April 2015

World Parkinsons Day (WPD) is celebrated every year and is dedicated to raising awareness about Parkinson’s and the impact this condition has on people’s lives.

“There is no reason for anyone to face Parkinson’s disease alone.

What is Parkinson’s disease ?

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative condition. It is caused by insufficient quantities of dopamine - a chemical in the brain. Dopamine enables quick, well-coordinated movement. When dopamine levels fall, movements become slow and awkward. Parkinson’s has both motor and non-motor symptoms, and while it cannot be cured it can be treated. As Parkinson’s is a progressive condition, it can often take many years to develop and has little effect on life expectancy. Different people will experience a different number and combination of symptoms.

Following a reduction in dopamine levels there are many non motor symptoms which can precede the onset of motor Parkinson's disease for many years.

Non Motor Symptoms Include:

REM sleep behavioral disorder

Reduced sense of smell

Automatic dysfunction


Impaired Vision

Attention Deficit

Difficulties planning and carrying out ordinary tasks

The motor symptoms of Parkinson's are based around involuntary movements or rigidity (in which muscles of the body 'freeze up' and do not work). The impact of these motor symptoms in the day to day life of a person with Parkinson's are immense; this awareness event aims in part, to make more people understand the severity of these symptoms.

For example, a person may not be able to perform a simple activity like crossing the road in case their 'feet freeze' making them unable to walk. When shopping, they may be unable to take money out from a purse or wallet to pay for items due to involuntary arm and hand movements.

Symptoms are unpredictable and can vary on a time scale as short as one minute.

Many people who have heard of Parkinson' disease associate this condition with the physical symptoms of tremor or rigidity. These symptoms may be shown as head bobbing or other sudden involuntary jerking movements. World Parkinson's Day aims to make more people aware of the non motor symptoms.

Who gets Parkinson’s disease ?

Parkinson’s is relatively common. Approximately 1 in 500 people have the condition. It becomes more common with older age groups, and it is believed 1% of people above the age of 60 have Parkinson’s. The average age at diagnosis is 59.

What causes Parkinson’s disease ?

Although we know a lot about the changes in the nerve cells of the brain in Parkinson’s, we do not yet know what causes or triggers the development of Parkinson’s disease. Symptoms can be treated . Researchers across the world continue to investigate new treatments.

Life With Parkinson's Disease

For those living with Parkinson's disease, some non motor symptoms can be worse for the sufferer than the physical motor problems.

Medical treatments for Parkinson's therapy can trigger or aggravate some non-motor symptoms. Non motor side effects from treatments may take the form of impulse control disorders. These are a set of psychiatric disorders which may includes compulsive behaviors such as compulsive gambling, excessive shopping, and sex addiction.

For some, the treatments can lead to other bad lifestyle habits such as eating out, drinking, and partying, to excess. In many cases, the person is unable to afford this kind of lifestyle creating further problems. When people experience this kind of behavior they sometimes report that it's as if something else was controlling their behavior.

However, without proper medication, the motor symptoms can quickly return (typically within an hour). In terms of treatment, a person with Parkinson's disease is 'caught between a rock and a hard place'; they have a choice and each one gives an unsatisfactory outcome. They will either endure loss of motor control or experience psychiatric problems should they medicate. Once on medication, a person may become fearful of possible consequences if they decide to stop this treatment.

Parkinson's Disease Can Happen To Anybody.

World Parkinson's Awareness Day aims to raise global awareness of Parkinson's disease.

Recent survey founds that over 90% in india did not know Parkinson's disease is a neurological condition which affects movement. Even more striking was that over 95% of people surveyed did not know that rigidity, in which a person is unable to move their body (or certain body parts) is a key motor symptom of this disease.

If so many people are unaware of the key motor symptoms of Parkinson's then gathering support for people with this condition is made much harder. It is also likely that people are unaware of the non motor symptoms that people with Parkinson's may endure (including the side effects of those on medication).

It is hoped that Parkinson's Awareness Day will promote advocacy and influence the decision of relevant policy makers where appropriate.

Monday, April 6, 2015

World Health Day 2015 April 7 Theme: Food safety

World Health Day 2015: Food safety

Unsafe food is linked to the deaths of an estimated 2 million people annually – including many children. Food containing harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites or chemical substances is responsible for more than 200 diseases, ranging from diarrhoea to cancers.

New threats to food safety are constantly emerging. Changes in food production, distribution and consumption; changes to the environment; new and emerging pathogens; antimicrobial resistance - all pose challenges to each and every countried food safety systems. Increases in travel and trade enhance the likelihood that contamination can spread internationally.

As our food supply becomes increasingly globalized, the need to strengthen food safety systems in and between all countries is becoming more and more evident. The urgent need is to improve food safety, from farm to plate (and everywhere in between) on World Health Day, 7 April 2015.

Five keys to safer food

Food safety is a shared responsibility. It is important to work all along the food production chain – from farmers and manufacturers to vendors and consumers. For example, the Five keys to safer food offer practical guidance to vendors and consumers for handling and preparing food:

Key 1: Keep clean

Key 2: Separate raw and cooked food

Key 3: Cook food thoroughly

Key 4: Keep food at safe temperatures

Key 5: Use safe water and raw materials.

World Health Day 2015 is an opportunity to alert people working in different government sectors, farmers, manufacturers, retailers, health practitioners – as well as consumers – about the importance of food safety, and the part each can play in ensuring that everyone can feel confident that the food on their plate is safe to eat.

Facts on food safety

The great majority of people will experience a food or water borne disease at some point in their lives. This highlights the importance of making sure the food we eat is not contaminated with potentially harmful bacteria, parasites, viruses, toxins and chemicals.

“Food safety: from farm to plate, make food safe” is the theme of World Health Day 2015. The day focuses on demonstrating the importance of food safety along the whole length of the food chain in a globalised world, from production and transport, to preparation and consumption.

Over the past half century, the process by which food gets from the farm to the plate has changed drastically. Food contamination that occurs in one place may affect the health of consumers living on the other side of the planet. This means that everyone along the production chain, from producer to consumer, must observe safe food handling practices.

Ten Facts about food safety

1.More than 200 diseases are spread through food.

Millions of people fall ill every year and many die as a result of eating unsafe food. Diarrhoeal diseases alone kill an estimated 1.5 million children annually, and most of these illnesses are attributed to contaminated food or drinking water. Proper food preparation can prevent most foodborne diseases

2.Contaminated food can cause long-term health problems.

The most common symptoms of foodborne disease are stomach pains, vomiting and diarrhoea. Food contaminated with heavy metals or with naturally occurring toxins can also cause long-term health problems including cancer and neurological disorders.

3.Food borne diseases affect vulnerable people harder than other groups.

Infections caused by contaminated food have a much higher impact on populations with poor or fragile health status and can easily lead to serious illness and death. For infants, pregnant women, the sick and the elderly, the consequences of foodborne disease are usually more severe and may be fatal
here are many opportunities for food contamination to take place

4.There are many opportunities for food contamination to take place

Today’s food supply is complex and involves a range of different stages including on-farm production, slaughtering or harvesting, processing, storage, transport and distribution before the food reaches the consumers

5.Globalization makes food safety more complex and essential.

Globalization of food production and trade is making the food chain longer and complicates foodborne disease outbreak investigation and product recall in case of emergency

6.Food safety is multisectoral and multidisciplinary

To improve food safety, a multitude of different professionals are working together, making use of the best available science and technologies. Different governmental departments and agencies, encompassing public health, agriculture, education and trade, need to collaborate and communicate with each other and engage with the civil society including consumer groups.

7.Food contamination also affects the economy and society as a whole.

Food contamination has far reaching effects beyond direct public health consequences – it undermines food exports, tourism, livelihoods of food handlers and economic development, both in developed and developing countries

8.Some harmful bacteria are becoming resistant to drug treatments.

Antimicrobial resistance is a growing global health concern. Overuse and misuse of antimicrobials in agriculture and animal husbandry, in addition to human clinical uses, is one of the factors leading to the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in animals may be transmitted to humans via food.

9. Everybody has a role to play in keeping food safe.

Food safety is a shared responsibility between governments, industry, producers, academia, and consumers. Everyone has a role to play. Achieving food safety is a multi-sectoral effort requiring expertise from a range of different disciplines – toxicology, microbiology, parasitology, nutrition, health economics, and human and veterinary medicine. Local communities, women’s groups and school education also play an important role.

10.Consumers must be well informed on food safety practices.

People should make informed and wise food choices and adopt. adequate behaviors. They should know common food hazards and how to handle food safely, using the information provided in food labelling

Wednesday, April 1, 2015

World Autism Day 2nd April 2015 Theme: Employment: The Autism Advantage

World Autism Day 2nd April 2015 Theme: Employment: The Autism Advantage

Dr M A Aleem MD DM (Neuro)
ABC Hospital
Cell 9443159940

Autism is a lifelong developmental disability that affects how a person communicates with, and relates to, other people. It also affects how they make sense of the world around them.

It is a spectrum condition, which means that, while all people with autism share certain difficulties, their condition will affect them in different ways. Some people with autism are able to live relatively independent lives but others may have accompanying learning disabilities and need a lifetime of specialist support. People with autism may also experience over- or under-sensitivity to sounds, touch, tastes, smells, light or colours.

Autism in India

Autism disorder is growing in India which now has over 10 million cases. Experts say early detection of this incurable disease can help a child lead his full potential .

India is home to more than 10 million people with autism and the disability has shown an increase over the last few years. According the recent statistic one in every 68 children today is born with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) against a ratio of one in 110 few years back.

There are many myths and misconceptions in our society concerning the development disability like autism. It is necessary that the creation of awareness on autism through various forms of mass media is an important one.

Autistic people are “a group of people with neurodevelopmental disabilities characterised by impairments in social interaction and communication and by restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior . The disease is found to be four times more prevalent in males than females.

We believe that since the first signs usually appear before a child is three years old, early detection of this incurable disease can help a child lead their full potential. In India these symptoms are usually ignored by parents and are undiagnosed or misdiagnosed by many , which is the reason for the higher numbers in the country.

The primary thing that an autistic child needs is a proper diagnosis, which is now existing in India.In Tamilnadu Government hospitals well equipped for the early detection of any disability including autism

Children born to older parents or those born prematurely are at a slightly higher risk of developing autism disorder. In some cases it has also been found that harmful drugs taken by the mother during pregnancy exposes the child to this disability. But scientist and researchers are still attempting to recognise the main genetic cause of this disorder.

Right to Education also for autism

Even though the Indian government flagship project, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, a vehicle for the Right to Education Act, and the National Trust Act mandate that children suffering from autism too have equal and compulsory right to education, these children usually face discrimination and disparity by school authorities and even students.

India particularly in Tamilnadu there are many special schools for disables with the facilities required by autistic children . Autistic children need trained therapists and educators who make them feel comfortable and teach them more of social skills rather than bookish knowledge.

Parents have proven to be the biggest educators and role models for the autistic children. Parents must help the autistic children realize their real potential and encourage them to fulfill their dreams.

Discrimination still remains

Even as the law provide for facilities of transport, vocational education, banking, housing and other benefits for people and children living with autism, they face harassment, end up becoming the laughing stock of the society and are often discriminated.

Though India is one of the first signatories to the UN Convention on Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities, lack of awareness hinders mainstreaming of autistic people by the society. Acceptance by the society is all what these people need today.

People often mistake this development disability as a mental disorder. People suffering from autism may be slow learners but as Albert Einstein has proven, they do have brilliant minds

Autism and Employment

In people with autism It is estimated that more than 80% of adults with autism are unemployed.

Research suggests that employers are missing out on abilities that people on the autism spectrum have in greater abundance than “neurotypical” workers do – such as, heightened abilities in pattern recognition and logical reasoning, as well as a greater attention to detail.

The hurdles that need to be overcome to unleash this potential include: a shortage of vocational training, inadequate support with job placement, and pervasive discrimination.

UN declared 2 April as World Autism Awareness Day to highlight the need to help improve the quality of life of children and adults, who are affected by autism, so they can lead full and meaningful lives.